Just like any other subject or field, politics also has its own terms and vocabulary. If you are also new to this subject and are curious to learn the vocabulary and terms of politics, this political ideology Quizlet will surely help you.
What is the definition of ideology?
Ideology is a set or system of views or beliefs that molds or shapes the thinking of people and how they see the world. An ideology is a system of beliefs and values depending on an individual or group of people, specifically as held by them for some reasons that are not simply epistemic. Ideology, the term, was previously used to be applied basically to economic, political, or religious theories and practices or policies. Antoine Destutt de Tracy, a French Enlightenment aristocrat, and philosopher came up with this term first. He coined it in 1796 and described it as the "science of ideas" to develop a perfect and logical system of beliefs and ideas to oppose the illogical impulses of the general public.
What are the examples of political Ideologies?
Over the centuries, many political philosophers have propounded a variety of political ideologies, on the basis of which the governments and societies can be smoothly run or organized. Today, we mostly study about five major political ideologies, namely:
These political ideologies are totally different from each other. All these major political ideologies have played a crucial role in shaping up the governments and leading the major political movements in history.
What is Anarchism?
The belief that the best way to govern is to have no government is understood as Anarchism. This ideology argues that everything about governments is repressive and thus must be abolished entirely. A related ideology referred to as Nihilism emphasizes that everything—both government and society—must be periodically destroyed so as to start out anew. Nihilists often categorically reject traditional concepts of morality in favor of violence and terror. Anarchism and nihilism were once related to socialism because many anarchists and nihilists supported the socialists’ motivating and calling people for revolution and therefore the complete overhaul of state and society during the early to mid-twentieth century.
What is Absolutism?
Absolutism is the political doctrine and practice of unlimited centralized authority and absolute sovereignty, as vested specifically during a monarch or dictator. Absolutist system emphasizes that the ruling power isn't subject to any regularized challenge or check by any other agency of any kind, be it judicial, legislative, religious, economic, or electoral. The most commonly studied sort of absolutism is an absolute monarchy. It originated in early modern Europe and was further supported by and propagated by the strong individual leaders of the new nation-states that were created at the breakup of the medieval order. The foremost common defense of monarchical absolutism referred to as “the divine right of kings” theory. This theory asserted that kings should never be questioned as they derived their authority from God. This view led to the justification of even tyrannical rule as divinely ordained punishment, administered by rulers, for human sinfulness.
To know the difference between political ideologies and political culture, please read
What is Liberalism?
Liberalism, political doctrine that takes protecting and enhancing the freedom of the individual to be the central problem of politics. Liberals typically believe that government is necessary to protect individuals from being harmed by others, but they also recognize that the government itself can pose a threat to liberty. As the revolutionary American pamphleteer Thomas Paine expressed it in Common Sense (1776), the government is at best “a necessary evil.” Laws, judges, and police are needed to secure the individual’s life and liberty, but their coercive power may also be turned against him. The problem, then, is to devise a system that gives the government the power necessary to protect individual liberty but also prevents those who govern from abusing that power.
What is conservatism?
The political ideology of Conservatism favors tradition which includes religious, cultural, or nationally-defined beliefs and customs in the face of external forces for change, and is critical of proposals for radical social change. Conservationists seek to preserve the established order or to reform society slowly, while others seek to return to the values of an earlier time.
Classical Conservatism doesn't reject change intrinsically but insists that changes be organic, instead of revolutionary. They argue against the change by saying that any plan to change the complex web of human interactions that form human society purely for the sake of some doctrine or theory runs the danger of running afoul of the law of unintended consequences and/or of ethical hazards. In that sense, Conservatism is totally against the ideals of Liberalism and Socialism.
What is Socialism?
The political ideology of socialism can be defined as a populist economic form of government-supported public ownership or collective or common ownership of the means of production. Those means of production include the machinery, tools, and factories which mainly used to produce goods that aim to directly satisfy human needs. Communism and socialism are quite similar terms and are based on two left-wing schools of economic thought. Both communism and socialism oppose capitalism, but socialism predates the "Communist Manifesto," an 1848 pamphlet by Marx and Engels, by a couple of decades.
I hope this political ideology Quizlet helped you in learning a few things about political ideologies.
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