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'New algorithm may help improve taste of beer'

Scientists have created a machine learning algorithm that may help brewers to have greater control over the flavor of the beer, and also yield personalized treatments for metabolic disorders in future.


London: Scientists have created a machine learning algorithm that may help brewers to have greater control over the flavor of the beer, and also yield personalized treatments for metabolic disorders in future.

The algorithm developed by scientists at the Francis Crick Institute in the UK can predict yeast metabolism from its protein content.

Metabolism is the process by which organisms convert nutrients into energy and essential molecules, via a series of chemical reactions.

When yeast metabolizes sugar in the absence of oxygen, it 'ferments' to produce alcohol, acids, and gases, including flavor compounds, that make bread, wine and beer taste good. Within a cell, metabolism produces hundreds of small molecules, called metabolites.

Although yeast is evolutionarily very distant to humans, many of these metabolites are identical and are made in a similar way. Until now, however, the mechanisms controlling metabolism have not been fully understood.

The study, published in the journal Cell Systems, shows that to a large extent, the metabolism of brewer's yeast (S cerevisiae) is predictable by machine learning algorithms if they are provided with large amounts of protein expression information.

"Thanks to machine learning, we now have a better understanding of what controls metabolism, which is good news for brewers looking to create the perfect pint, or for biotechnologists that use yeast to produce vaccines and other proteins that are medically important," said Aleksej Zelezniak, a researcher at Francis Crick Institute.

"Until now, scientists have been divided over whether metabolism is self-regulating or controlled by gene expression changes; partly because existing methods have failed to detect any strong correlation between the read-out of genes proteins and metabolites," Zelezniak said.

Scientists quantified enzyme expression in 97 different strains of S cerevisiae, known to show differences in metabolism, linking it to changes in metabolite concentrations measured.

They developed machine learning algorithms that could pick up complex relationships between changes in gene expression and metabolites produced.

They found that metabolism was controlled by lots of enzymes acting in concert with no single enzyme having a major effect by itself.

The team is hoping to transfer their findings in yeast cells to the clinic in the next few years to help patients with metabolic diseases.

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Hiring a ghostwriter might seem like an easy thing to do as the business has become so common and it is now very easy to find the ghostwriters everywhere, but hiring the right one is truly tricky business.

Some helpful tips are mentioned for you below to learn the right protocol for hiring the best ghostwriter for your book.

1. What Do They Know About the Ghostwriting Work

A professional ghostwriter must know how ghostwriting works, and also aware of the work ethics of this field. They should understand that maintaining the confidentiality of the client is the leading priority of a ghostwriter. It is important for you to know whether you are hiring the right person or not. Sometimes people make a mistake while appointing the right person, and instead of hiring a ghostwriter, they hire just a writer that cost them in the failure of getting the quality work.

2. Which Writing Style They Follow

Just like any other writers the ghostwriters also follow any one of the two writing styles; either a ghostwriter writes fiction books, or they are non-fiction writers, who write memoirs, autobiographies, academic material, technical manuals, or anything that is reality-based. It is essential to know the writing style of the ghostwriter before hiring them so that you would see whether they can do the work with the quality or not.

3. How Many experiences They Have In This Field

Knowing the experience level of the ghostwriter is also very important as it shows how professional and credible the person would to continue doing the work that long. Also, it will help the client to make a judgment call that the ghostwriter will be more likely to provide very high quality in work if he is a very experienced person.

4. Do They Carry a Sample Contract With Them

It is also important to ask the ghostwriters whether they have a sample contract that you can have a look at, if the ghostwriter is a professional and had been providing the services for a long time, then they must possess a sample contract to show the client.

When the ghostwriter will show you the contract make sure that all the points are valid and if you want to add or remove any clause, better discuss that with the ghostwriter on the spot rather than facing any trouble in the future.

5. Have a Look At Relevant Sample Work

Even though if the ghostwriter has nothing to show about their previous ghostwriting projects, they must have the relevant sample work of their own that they can show at the time of interview. It is essential that you should take a good look at the sample work so that you know that the quality of their work is acceptable and your project will be satisfactory.

6. Ask Them to Show Any of Their Published Work

Sometimes ghostwriters also get to be named for the work they do, they either get the credits for being the co-author or the editor of the book. Similarly, sometimes ghostwriting clients does not give credits to the ghostwriter, but they allow them to show some portion of the work to their other clients as their sample work. It would not harm you to ask the ghostwriters to show you any of their published work.

7. See If The Book Cover Designing Is Included In Their Package

Some ghostwriters and ghostwriting agencies include the book illustration services in their packages as well, so their customers do not have to bother looking out of the book illustrators for hire. It would be great if you ask them if they also include the illustration services or not to save yourself some efforts.

8. Confirm Their Charges Before Hiring Them

Ghostwriters usually don’t quote any price in the interview, as there are many aspects that they look into before they make up their mind to charge the client. Research, revisions, and editing require in the project ultimately help them to quote the price. It would be great to discuss all the crucial aspects so that they could provide you with a quotation in the meeting after making their calculations.

9. Deadline Needs to Be Decided In the Beginning

The duration of the project is entirely dependent on how much work is required, the list of requirements, the research that it includes, etc. It is necessary that you provide the basic information about your project so that the ghostwriter can share the approximate time by which the project will be delivered to you. On the other hand, you can also let them know the deadline that you want them to follow to get your work completed, but make sure that you are being realistic with the timeline.

Reconnect With Your Purposeful Self

“Love yourself. Forgive yourself. Be true to yourself. How you treat yourself sets the standard for how others will treat you.”—Steve Maraboli

It is important for our personal development to learn how to love ourselves. If we don’t, it is hard to expect others to love us. Whilst humans have many faults and shortcomings, embracing our faults is central to accepting ourselves as we are. Loving ourselves should become our highest priority if we wish to live authentically, from a place of non-resistance. I don’t mean loving ourselves in a self-centred way but to embrace our uniqueness and the gifts that show up in our daily life. Low self-esteem puts the brake on our personal growth by restricting our concept of self, insofar as we may never reach our full potential if we entertain recurring thoughts of low self-esteem. Consider the following thoughts as a guide for reconnecting with your purposeful self and developing a stronger relationship with that self.

1. Know Yourself

If our desire is personal growth, it is vital we understand ourselves better, and know what makes us bloom. We may be aware of our flaws, yet embracing them and moving forward becomes our source of courage. Nobody is perfect—we may spend our entire life trying to fill an empty shoe that doesn’t exist if we follow this line of thinking. Yes, even his Holiness the Dalai Lama is subject to the conditions of human frailty. Therefore, I invite you to stand before a mirror and admire your reflection. Do you like what you see reflected back to you? What feelings arise when you look deeply into your eyes? Some people are loath to appreciate themselves and their body. Whilst you may not consider yourself as important as other people, in your life story you are the hero in your life’s journey.

2. Stop Criticising Yourself

Do you belittle yourself over small things? Whenever you make a mistake, are you aware of the inner critic inside your head reminding you of your imperfections? Criticising yourself will get you nowhere fast. People who practice self-compassion are more successful in life with a healthier outlook. It is vital to associate with your positive traits instead of focusing on the negative ones. Be mindful you are not reliving a childhood phase of your life by reconnecting with a critical parent. Therefore, let go of your need to judge yourself and move towards a state of empathy.

3. Embrace Your Positive Nature

“Your task is not to seek for love, but merely to seek and find all the barriers within yourself that you have built against it.”—Rumi

When you entertain positive thoughts, you are kinder towards yourself so your self-love and self-esteem increases. Kindness towards others becomes an expression of one’s self-love. You can only give out what you hold in your heart. Therefore, if you believe you are undeserving of attention and kindness, you will likely withhold sharing these virtues with others. Every person is born positive, it’s their environment which shapes them into a bitter or negative individual. Even at this stage, you can still embrace your positive nature. Nothing is carved in stone unless you give it power and permission.

4. Acknowledge Your Success

You might not have succeeded according to your terms and definition, yet the definition of success is arbitrary. What does success look like to you? There are many people who never attempt to step out of their comfort zone and yet insist success paves a path to their front door. If you made a direct effort to pursue something you desired, but could not succeed, don’t let that impair your definition of success. Failure is part of the process to reach your goals. Those who succeed will tell you they failed repeatedly before reaching success. Your success is determined by how you bounce back from your failures and the lessons gained. Trying is a big thing. It is not always about winning, sometimes it’s the effort that counts.

5. Release Your Worries

Worrying is a futile emotion that is better spent taking appropriate action. Worrying uses up vital emotional energy which can be channelled into developing emotional resiliency and fortitude. The more you entertain worrying thoughts, the more you establish a place in your mind that becomes habituated to worrying. There is a term used in neuropsychology known as the Hebbian theory which states: nerves that fire together, wire together. When you entertain worrying thoughts, you set up stronger neural connections in the brain for the worrying to exist. Set your worries aside since they may hold you back from prospering at greater levels. Surely you want to taste success and transform your worries into empowering emotions, which can serve your greatest potential.

6. Forgive Yourself

“You have been criticizing yourself for years, and it hasn’t worked. Try approving of yourself and see what happens.”—Louise Hay

We all make mistakes, some people make more than others, yet that does not qualify you or them to think less of oneself. Holding on to your mistakes inhibits vital neural pathways in the brain from learning. Your brain is engineered for growth and learning the context of a receptive environment. No one is immune to making mistakes. Therefore, learn to forgive yourself by practicing detachment from outcomes. Trust that whatever happened in the past was done so with the level of awareness apparent to you. You were doing the best you could given the resources available to you, thus forgiveness opens the door to help you move forward. Appreciate the lessons gained from your experiences by seeing them as an opportunity to gain the emotional resiliency to fight other battles.

7. Be Grateful

If you’re reading this on a smartphone or tablet, you have every reason to be grateful. If you have access to a computer, you are privileged to have electricity and are more likely to live an industrialised country with suitable resources. Almost three billion people on the planet live below the poverty line and it is expected this figure will rise over the coming years. At the time of writing, the world’s population is 7.53 billion people. Yet, less than half gets by on $2.50 a day. Without turning this into a lecture on why we should be grateful, it is worth appreciating how much there is to be grateful for when we consider those numbers. Gratitude entails being thankful for what is available in our life right NOW. It does not mean being grateful when we gain something of value or someone contributing to our happiness. It means recognising what is available to us at this moment results from the thoughts, beliefs and energy we created to allow us to be who we are. We create our reality through the sum of our thoughts, habits and actions.

Being grateful does not mean comparing oneself to others who are less fortunate; for we are all navigating our own journey in life. People often ask me: “Tony, how can I be grateful when people are homeless and others are dying in third-world countries?” My reply is: “It is your obligation to be grateful not for what is happening in the world, but what is happening in your world.” Consider if every person in the world raised their thought energy to one of gratitude? The collective consciousness of humanity would expand to the degree that poverty, homelessness and other diseases and illnesses would no longer be a threat to our way of life. Whilst this sounds like a Utopian existence, it is conceivable that we can make slow strides toward this possibility if we play our part in the evolution of humanity.


Creating Wikipedia pages was once a very difficult task, but now many companies are in operation that helps people all across the world is getting a perfect Wikipedia page. If anyone is looking to be a part of this industry and has the urge to learn about the Wikipedia page creation agencies of the world, then some important information has been communicated below for your assistance.

How to Become a Wikipedia Expert?

1. Get a Proper Learning About Wikipedia and All of Its Rules

It is essential for all the Wikipedia experts to learn about the rules and restrictions of Wikipedia. Without knowing the proper guidelines that Wikipedia has defined, it would not even be remotely possible to create a perfect page for anyone on Wikipedia.

2. It Will Be Extremely Helpful to Possess Good Research Skills

It is also compulsory for every Wikipedia expert to own an intense skill set in conducting thorough and in-depth research. Since research is the most important element in generating and writing a well structured Wikipedia page, it is imperative to carry out the study from the trustworthy sources only and extract only the factual data from the sites that you are using to get the material.

3. Writing Skills Has to Be Excellent

It is obviously understood that high quality has to be served in front of the clients. Therefore a Wikipedia expert should have excellent writing skills to offer high-quality Wikipedia page writing service. Wikipedia is very strict about their rules and limits that it has formed. It is a primary job of every Wikipedia expert to follow the instructions of the Wikipedia while inscribing the article for the Wikipedia page. Make sure the content does not sound promotional at all, and only consist of the facts and fabrication should not be a part of it.

4. Proofreading Is An Important Pillar to Get the Wiki Page Content Published

Once you are done with the writing, make sure you proofread the content to deliver an error-free Wikipedia page article to the clients. It is a vital duty of the Wikipedia expert to ensure that there are no spelling or grammar mistakes in the content of the page. Also, Wikipedia expert should be confident the sentences are appropriately structured, and the references are adequately cited in the draft.

How Wikipedia Help You With Technical Writing?

1. Provide Assistance In Writing In Simple Language

Both technical and Wikipedia content is meant for simple and ordinary people. It will be a waste of time to use a complex sentence structure for the audience in the contents. Wikipedia writers are used to of writing the article in the most natural and plain language so that the information can easily be comprehended by the readers.

2. Helps You to Minimize the Use of Jargons

It would be useless to use too much-complicated words in the sentences of the Wikipedia page content and leave the readers confused and tangled in the meanings of the words. It is preferably better to use the global English language in the content to make it understandable by the readers. If the writers have the habit of writing in the easy and clear words, they will be granted when they will switch for the technical writing, as the technical writing demands for the simple and easy language.

3. Very Helpful In Communicating Accurate Information to Readers

Everyone knows that Wikipedia is the best source of gaining information about anything or anyone. Writers who work for the Wikipedia page creation services know exactly how to communicate or deliver accurate details to the readers. It is not a difficult job for them to convey the right message to the audience. Now, if you look at the technical writing, for example, if you want to write a thesis, you will definitely be looking out a way to write the entire thing in such a way that it will provide clarity to the people who are accessing it for the research purpose or for gaining knowledge. If someone knows exactly how to deliver the info to the Wikipedia page readers, then they will also be able to work impeccably in the technical writing department.

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