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I have collected details about LONGEST TUNNEL IN WORLD which is an engineering marvellous made for rail transportation. About 260 freight trains and 65 passenger trains pass through the tunnel each day taking time as little as 17 minutes. Gotthard Base Tunnel (GBT) in Switzerland is twin bore longest and deepest high speed rail tunnel under Swiss Alps. The tunnel length is nearly 35 miles or 57 kilometres long. It is connecting Dutch city of Rotterdam, Europe’s busiest port, in the north, to Genoa, on Italy’s Tyrrhenian Sea coast, in the south. It is deepest railway tunnel as well in the world, with a maximum depth of 2,450 metres (8,040 ft), comparable to that of the deepest mines on Earth. The tunnel travels up to 2.3 km below the surface of the mountains at the deepest point and through rock that reaches temperatures of 46 °C (115 °F). Construction and Maintenance of Tunnel AlpTransit Gotthard AG was responsible for construction. It is a wholly owned subsidiary of the Swiss Federal Railways. To cut construction time in half, four access tunnels were built so that construction could start at four different sites simultaneously: Erstfeld, Amsteg, Sedrun, and Faido. About 2,600 persons, a massive 10 metre (30 feet) boring were employed and nearly 4,000,000 cubic metre of concrete was used. Engineers had to dig and blast through 73 different kinds of rock, some as hard as granite and others as soft as sugar. More than 28m tonnes of rock were excavated, then recycled, broken down to use as aggregate in concrete used to build the tunnel. The project, which cost more than $12bn (£8.3bn) and took about 17 years' construction time, the new Gotthard Base Tunnel was ceremonially opened on June 1, 2016. It is not only the world's longest railway tunnel but also a unique masterpiece of engineering. Safety Features in Tunnel The Gotthard Base Tunnel features state-of-the-art safety systems to protect passengers, staff and the tunnel itself. A range of wayside train monitoring systems (e.g. hot box detectors, wheel load checkpoints, fire and chemical detectors etc. which are installed on the access routes to the tunnel enable any train defects to be detected early, before the trains enter the tunnel. There are cross-passages into the adjacent tunnel tube every 325 metres, which ensure fast access into a safe area. Emergency lighting, handrails and signs help passengers to find their way to safety. Seven Longest Tunnels in the World • Gotthard Base Tunnel, Switzerland, 2016 57.5 Km • Seikan Tunnel, Japan, 1988 53.9 Km • Eurotunnel, France-UK, 1994 50.5 Km • Yulhyeon Tunnel, South Korea, 2015 50.3 Km • Lotschberg Base Tunnel, Switzerland, 2007 34.6 Km • New Guanjiao Tunnel, China, 2014 32.6 Km • Guadarrama Tunnel, Spain 28.4 Km This word record of longest Gotthard Base Tunnel might not last long. China has announced plans for a 76-mile link between the northern port cities of Dalian and Yantai, under the Bohai Strait. For reading more articles, you may visit: www.digitalnavya.com

January 23

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